Discrimination Associated with Mental Health Woes in Black Teens
Researchers find racism a common 'toxic stressor' among African-American, Afro-Caribbean youth
VANCOUVER, BC; May 3, 2014—The vast majority of African-American and Afro-Caribbean youth face racial discrimination, and these experiences are associated with an increased risk of mental health problems, according to a study to be presented Saturday, May 3, at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
"Sixty years after Brown vs. Board of Education, racism remains a toxic stressor commonly experienced by youth of color," said lead author Lee M. Pachter, D.O., FAAP. "The fact that these experiences are encountered during adolescence—a critically sensitive period for identity development—is of great concern, as is our finding of slightly higher rates of depression, anxiety and social phobias in those youth who have more experiences with discrimination."
The researchers analyzed data from the National Survey of American Life, which examines racial, ethnic and cultural influences on the mental health of African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans (blacks living in the United States who are of Caribbean descent). Interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample of 1,170 adolescents (1,017 African-Americans and 137 Afro-Caribbeans) ages 13-17 years.
"Our study looked at the relationships between perceived racial discrimination (racism) and various mental health issues. We wanted to see if African-American and Afro-Caribbean teenagers who experienced racial discrimination have higher rates of depression, anxiety or social phobia," said Dr. Pachter, professor of pediatrics at Drexel University College of Medicine and chief of general pediatrics at St. Christopher's Hospital for Children in Philadelphia.
This is one of the few studies that look at experiences of black youth of Caribbean ancestry and ethnicity separate from African-American youth, Dr. Pachter noted. Because of differences in culture, pre- and post-immigration experiences, and other factors, it is important to differentiate groups that generally are lumped together as 'black' in the same way that Latinos are separated into subgroups such as Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, etc.
Survey results showed that 85 percent of the adolescents experienced racial discrimination. During their lifetime, 6 percent experienced major depression, 17 percent suffered from anxiety and 13 percent had social phobia. In the year before they were surveyed, 4 percent of teens had major depression, and 14 percent experienced anxiety.
More experiences with discrimination was associated with a higher likelihood of major depression, anxiety disorder and social phobia during one's lifetime, as well as major depression and anxiety in the 12 months before the survey was conducted. These associations were present for both African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans, for males and females, and for younger and older teens.
Results also showed that increasing levels of racial discrimination had a greater effect on Afro-Caribbean youth, who experienced higher rates of anxiety than African-American teens.
"The challenge now is to identify interventions at the individual, family and community levels to lessen the mental health effects of racial discrimination while we as a society grapple with ways to eliminate it as a toxic stressor," Dr. Pachter concluded.
" The Relationship Between Racial Discrimination and Mental Health in African American and Afro-Caribbean Youth: Results from a National Study," Lee M. Pachter, Bruce A. Bernstein. General Pediatrics, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA; Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
BACKGROUND: The effects of racial discrimination as a social stressor on child health outcomes have been understudied. Limited data suggest a relationship between perceptions of racism and poor mental health. Furthermore, information about differences in these relationships in diverse ethnic minority groups is limited.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between perceived discrimination & various mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, social phobia) in a national sample of African American (AA) and Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens.
DESIGN/METHODS: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) was used to look at perceived discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale), lifetime major depression (LMD), lifetime anxiety disorder (LAD), lifetime social phobia (LSP), & prior 12 month major depression (12MD) and anxiety (12A) in Black youth age 13-17 through logistic regression, controlling for gender, age, & ethnicity (African American-AA vs. Afro Caribbean-AC). Moderating effects of ethnicity was investigated with interaction analysis.
RESULTS: 1170 youth were surveyed-1017 AA, 137 AC, 16 others. Eighty-five percent (85%) of the sample experienced discrimination; 6% experienced Lifetime Major Depression, 17% had Lifetime Anxiety Disorder, 13% Lifetime Social Phobia, 4% had Major Depression in last 12 mos, and 14% had Anxiety in last 12 mos. More experiences with discrimination was associates with higher odds of LMD (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03-1.20), LAD (OR 1.06; 1.01-1.11), LSP (1.08; 1.02-1.14), 12MD (1.12; 1.03-1.22), and 12A (1.09; 1.03-1.15). These relationships remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, & ethnicity. Ethnicity moderated the effects of discrimination on LAD--as discrimination increases, the likelihood of lifetime anxiety increases significantly more in AC compared to AA.
CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination is a social stressor associated with adverse mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety & social phobia in a national sample of African American & Afro-Caribbean teens. While these effects are significant for both African American & Afro-Caribbean youth, increasing levels of discrimination result in a greater rise in rates of anxiety in Afro-Caribbean youth. These findings lends support to the notion that studies of toxic stress and adverse childhood experiences need to address social factors that specifically affect populations of color, and need to dis-aggregate minority groups based on ethnocultural context.
Session: Platform Session: General Pediatrics: Underserved (10:30 AM - 12:30 PM)
Date/Time: Saturday, May 3, 2014 - 11:30 AM
Room: East 13 - Vancouver Convention Centre
Course Code: 1435
September 17, 2013—An international review led by the University of Melbourne has found children and young people experience poor mental health, depression and anxiety following experiences of racism.
CHAMPAIGN, IL; April 24, 2014—It is better to give than to receive—at least if you're an adolescent and you enjoy giving, a new study suggests.
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